Posts

July 25, 2014

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10:12 AM | How our judgments about criminals are swayed by disgust, biological explanations and animalistic descriptions
We expect of our jurors and judges calm, reasoned evaluation of the evidence. Of course we know the reality is rather different - prejudice and emotional reactions will always play their part. Now two new studies add insight into the ways people's legal judgements depart from cool objectivity.Beatrice Capestany and Lasana Harris focused on two main factors - the disgust level of a crime, and whether or not the perpetrators' personality was described in biological terms. Seventeen participants […]

Capestany, B. & Harris, L. (2014). Disgust and biological descriptions bias logical reasoning during legal decision-making, Social Neuroscience, 9 (3) 265-277. DOI: 10.1080/17470919.2014.892531

Vasquez, E., Loughnan, S., Gootjes-Dreesbach, E. & Weger, U. (2014). The animal in you: Animalistic descriptions of a violent crime increase punishment of perpetrator, Aggressive Behavior, 40 (4) 337-344. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21525

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12:47 AM | Know your brain: Meninges
Where are they? Close-up view of the meninges surrounding the brain. The term meninges comes from the Greek for "membrane" and refers to the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The membrane layers (discussed in detail below) from the outside in are the: dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Their positioning around the brain can be seen in the image to the right.What are they and what do they do?The brain is soft and mushy, and […]

Patel, N. & Kirmi, O. (2009). Anatomy and Imaging of the Normal Meninges, Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, 30 (6) 559-564. DOI: 10.1053/j.sult.2009.08.006

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July 24, 2014

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11:24 PM | Salmon and Spinal Cod Regeneration, er… Cord
Fish might not be the first thing you think about when we talk spinal cord injury but that is exactly what scientists are doing. Don’t ask where they got the […]

Lewandowski, G. & Steward, O. (2014). AAVshRNA-Mediated Suppression of PTEN in Adult Rats in Combination with Salmon Fibrin Administration Enables Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Axons and Enhances Recovery of Voluntary Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (30) 9951-9962. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1996-14.2014

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9:30 PM | Grief in children and adolescents
The plane crash in Ukraine brings up many questions related to loss and grief. How will those left behind cope with the devastating event? How can we support them? With regard to how young people cope with bereavement, Mariken Spuij’s … Continue reading →

Spuij M, Prinzie P, Dekovic M, van den Bout J & Boelen PA (2013). The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial., Trials, 14 395. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24252587

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8:58 PM | Why the new paper by Christakis and Fowler on friendship makes me queasy
I am a neuroscientist, and as a neuroscientist I have a strange belief that most of who we are comes from our brains. My entire career is based around understanding behavior from this neural level which I feel to be fairly justifiable. So when I see paper looking at the genetics of behavior, I expect to see at […]

Christakis NA & Fowler JH (2014). Friendship and natural selection., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111 (Supplement 3) 10796-10801. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024208

Ripke, S., Neale, B., Corvin, A., Walters, J., Farh, K., Holmans, P., Lee, P., Bulik-Sullivan, B., Collier, D., Huang, H. & Pers, T. (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci, Nature, 511 (7510) 421-427. DOI: 10.1038/nature13595

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5:34 PM | Background TV and Children don’t Mix
Coming from a, to put it gently, very broken home, my babysitter was the television. Yep, so now that you are feeling nice and awkward let’s talk television. New research, […]

Linebarger DL, Barr R, Lapierre MA & Piotrowski JT (2014). Associations Between Parenting, Media Use, Cumulative Risk, and Children's Executive Functioning., Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP, 35 (6) 367-77. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25007059

Lapierre, M., Piotrowski, J. & Linebarger, D. (2012). Background Television in the Homes of US Children, PEDIATRICS, 130 (5) 839-846. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2581

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9:02 AM | When interviewers try to sell the job, they become bad interviewers
It’s hard to find the best person for the job through an interview. New research uncovers part of the problem: judging a candidate’s calibre becomes trickier when we’re also trying to sell them the benefits of joining the organisation.In an initial study, participants were asked to interview a person (another participant) who was acting as an applicant for a fictional position. Half the interviewers were told their priority was to get a good sense of the applicant, while the […]

Marr, J. & Cable, D. (2013). Do Interviewers Sell Themselves Short? The Effects of Selling Orientation on Interviewers' Judgments, Academy of Management Journal, 57 (3) 624-651. DOI: 10.5465/amj.2011.0504

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8:14 AM | Prenatal valproate exposure and brains
The paper by Amanda Wood and colleagues [1] (open-access) makes a potentially very important contribution to the growing literature looking at how prenatal exposure to sodium valproate (VPA) may affect some children. Authors reported on: "regional structural cortical brain changes in humans exposed to VPA in utero" and specifically, increased cortical thickness in the left inferior frontal gyrus.Lightning and lava @ Oliver Spalt @ Wikipedia In case you need any background on the […]

Wood, A., Chen, J., Barton, S., Nadebaum, C., Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., Reutens, D., O'Brien, T. & Vajda, F. (2014). Altered cortical thickness following prenatal sodium valproate exposure, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, DOI: 10.1002/acn3.74

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July 23, 2014

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7:26 PM | Physicians face difficult choices when treating patients with bipolar and obsessive compulsive disorders
New research suggests patients with both bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder should receive treatments for bipolar disorder alone.1 Bipolar and obsessive compulsive disorder therapies taken together can cause worsening of disease symptoms, making it difficult for physicians to treat both conditions. This is a concern as over 1 in 5 patients with bipolar disorder […]

Pacchiarotti I, Bond DJ, Baldessarini RJ & et al. (2013). The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) task force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders., The American journal of psychiatry, 170 (11) 1249-62. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030475

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5:21 PM | Voyager has hit interstellar space…. maybe?
Poor Voyager, he just can’t catch a break. We’ve said it’s hit interstellar space more times than we want to admit and in 2012, the Voyager mission team announced that […]

G. Gloeckler & L. A. Fisk (2014). A test for whether or not Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause, Geophysical Research Letters, Other:

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5:13 PM | Preregistration for All Medical Animal Research
Writing in the European Journal of Clinical Investigation, three Dutch researchers say that All preclinical trials should be registered in advance in an online registry Citing the fact that all clinical trials are (in theory) already registered, authors Jansen of Lorkeers et al say that the system should be extended to cover preclinical medical research, […]The post Preregistration for All Medical Animal Research appeared first on Neuroskeptic.

Jansen of Lorkeers, S., Doevendans, P. & Chamuleau, S. (2014). All preclinical trials should be registered in advance in an online registry, European Journal of Clinical Investigation, DOI: 10.1111/eci.12299

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4:46 PM | As a butterfly flaps its wings in Tokyo, a neuron in your head veers slightly heavenward…
When you look at the edge of a table, there is a neuron in your head that goes from silence to pop pop pop. As you extend your arm, a nerve commanding the muscle does the same thing. Your retina has neurons whose firing rate goes up or down depending on whether it detects a light spot […]

Kaufman MT, Churchland MM, Ryu SI & Shenoy KV (2014). Cortical activity in the null space: permitting preparation without movement., Nature neuroscience, 17 (3) 440-8. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24487233

Mante V, Sussillo D, Shenoy KV & Newsome WT (2013). Context-dependent computation by recurrent dynamics in prefrontal cortex., Nature, 503 (7474) 78-84. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201281

Churchland, M., Cunningham, J., Kaufman, M., Foster, J., Nuyujukian, P., Ryu, S. & Shenoy, K. (2012). Neural population dynamics during reaching, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature11129

Shenoy KV, Sahani M & Churchland MM (2013). Cortical control of arm movements: a dynamical systems perspective., Annual review of neuroscience, 36 337-59. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23725001

Ames KC, Ryu SI & Shenoy KV (2014). Neural dynamics of reaching following incorrect or absent motor preparation., Neuron, 81 (2) 438-51. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462104

Churchland, M., Cunningham, J., Kaufman, M., Ryu, S. & Shenoy, K. (2010). Cortical Preparatory Activity: Representation of Movement or First Cog in a Dynamical Machine?, Neuron, 68 (3) 387-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.09.015

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3:54 PM | The Adolescent Dog: One Last Chance?
A synthesis of the latest research on social influences on development suggests adolescence is an important time for mammals – including dogs.Photo: dezi / ShutterstockMost people are familiar with the idea of a sensitive period for puppies that ends around 12 or 14 weeks. Is it possible that adolescence is also an important period for brain development and future behaviour?Social experience plays an important role in shaping animal behaviour throughout development according to Sachser et […]

Riemer, S., Müller, C., Virányi, Z., Huber, L. & Range, F. (2014). The Predictive Value of Early Behavioural Assessments in Pet Dogs – A Longitudinal Study from Neonates to Adults, PLoS ONE, 9 (7) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101237

Sachser, N., Kaiser, S. & Hennessy, M. (2013). Behavioural profiles are shaped by social experience: when, how and why, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368 (1618) 20120344-20120344. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0344

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1:38 PM | Video Tip of the Week: Nowomics, set up alert feeds for new data
Yeah, I know you know. There’s a lot of genomics and proteomics data coming out every day–some of it in the traditional publication route, but some of it isn’t–and it’s only getting harder and harder to wrangle the useful information to access the signal from the noise.  I can remember when merely looking through the […]

Acland A., T. Barrett, J. Beck, D. A. Benson, C. Bollin, E. Bolton, S. H. Bryant, K. Canese, D. M. Church & K. Clark & (2014). Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Nucleic Acids Research, 42 (D1) D7-D17. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1146

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12:00 PM | Let's Get Loud
Biology concepts – vocalizations, mechanical sounds, sonar, decibels, stridulation Today it seems that truth is more complex than ever. van Goethe was a German statesman and a very successful writer. He wrote novels, scientific treatises, lyric poems, as well as dramas. Born in 1749, one might say that his quote was true for his day; it was a simpler time. But think how simple our time will seem to those who live a hundred years from now – unless we’ve found our way back to […]

Van Belle S, Estrada A & Garber PA (2014). The function of loud calls in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): Food, mate, or infant defense?, American journal of primatology, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24865565

Sueur J, Mackie D & Windmill JF (2011). So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae)., PloS one, 6 (6) PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698252

McDonald, M., Hildebrand, J. & Mesnick, S. (2009). Worldwide decline in tonal frequencies of blue whale songs, Endangered Species Research, 9 13-21. DOI: 10.3354/esr00217

Anker A, Ahyong ST, Noël PY & Palmer AR (2006). Morphological phylogeny of alpheid shrimps: parallel preadaptation and the origin of a key morphological innovation, the snapping claw., Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 60 (12) 2507-28. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17263113

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8:55 AM | What the textbooks don't tell you - one of psychology's most famous experiments was seriously flawed
Zimbardo speaking in '09Conducted in 1971, the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE) has acquired a mythical status and provided the inspiration for at least two feature-length films. You'll recall that several university students allocated to the role of jailor turned brutal and the study had to be aborted prematurely. Philip Zimbardo, the experiment's lead investigator, says the lesson from the research is that in certain situations, good people readily turn bad. "If you put good apples into a bad […]

Griggs, R. (2014). Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Textbooks, Teaching of Psychology, 41 (3) 195-203. DOI: 10.1177/0098628314537968

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7:46 AM | Trauma and PTSD raise risk of autoimmune disorders?
I admit to some head scratching when I first read the paper by Aoife O’Donovan and colleagues [1] reporting that among war veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns, "trauma exposure and PTSD [post-traumatic stress disorder] may increase risk of autoimmune disorders".It wasn't that I didn't believe the results, but rather that the idea that a physical event with a psychological consequence could impact on a somatic condition with an autoimmune element to it seemed to […]

O’Donovan, A., Cohen, B., Seal, K., Bertenthal, D., Margaretten, M., Nishimi, K. & Neylan, T. (2014). Elevated Risk For Autoimmune Disorders In Iraq And Afghanistan Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Biological Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.06.015

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3:16 AM | Heroes and Villains: Banal or Special People? Part 2 of 2
In part 1 of this post, I discussed the situationist analysis of the “banality” of evil and of heroism respectively. To recap, according to Phil Zimbardo and colleagues, both heroic acts and evil acts occur primarily in response to situational factors, rather than internal features of the person. However, on closer inspection, the situationist analysis provides inconsistent accounts of how each of these occurs. Evil actions are attributed to factors entirely outside the person, […]

Carnahan T & McFarland S (2007). Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?, Personality & social psychology bulletin, 33 (5) 603-14. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17440210

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July 22, 2014

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10:47 PM | When Crazy becomes a Crime
My friend has a glass eye, you would never notice and unless you knew the story you might not think anything of it. His older brother did it. Yes, you […]

Dana Goldman,, John Fastenau,, Riad Dirani,, Eric Hellend,, Geoff Joyce,, Ryan Conrad, & Darius Lakdawalla, (2014). Medicaid Prior Authorization Policies and Imprisonment Among Patients With Schizophrenia, The American Journal of Managed Care, 20 (7) Other:

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6:48 PM | Fasting Improves Recovery of Bone Marrow Stem Cells after Chemotherapy
[Note: This is a guest post by Tauseef (@CellSpell)] Fasting is defined as either completely abstaining from or minimizing food intake for a defined period time - ranging from about 12 hours to even a few weeks. Calorie restriction, on the other hand, refers to an overall reduction in the daily calorie intake by about 20%-40% without necessarily reducing the meal intake frequency. Although calorie restriction is well-suited for weight loss and thus also reduces the risk of chronic diseases... […]

Cheng, C., Adams, G., Perin, L., Wei, M., Zhou, X., Lam, B., Da Sacco, S., Mirisola, M., Quinn, D., Dorff, T. & Kopchick, J. (2014). Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression, Cell Stem Cell, 14 (6) 810-823. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014

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6:48 PM | Fasting Improves Recovery of Bone Marrow Stem Cells after Chemotherapy
[Note: This is a guest post by Tauseef (@CellSpell)] Fasting is defined as either completely abstaining from or minimizing food intake for a defined period time - ranging from about 12 hours to even a few weeks. Calorie restriction, on the other hand, refers to an overall reduction in the daily calorie intake by about 20%-40% without necessarily reducing the meal intake frequency. Although calorie restriction is well-suited for weight loss and thus also reduces the risk of chronic diseases... […]

Cheng, C., Adams, G., Perin, L., Wei, M., Zhou, X., Lam, B., Da Sacco, S., Mirisola, M., Quinn, D., Dorff, T. & Kopchick, J. (2014). Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression, Cell Stem Cell, 14 (6) 810-823. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014

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5:45 PM | Suspicious Things Really Make Us ‘Smell Something Fishy’
When we say “Fred is a warm person,” we don’t usually mean his body temperature is hotter than average. We use metaphors such as “warm”, “high”, and “clean” to describe more abstract concepts like “friendly,” “powerful,” and “morally sound.” So we mean that Fred is friendly, not that he has a fever. But these metaphors […]

Lee S.W.S. & Schwarz N. (2012). Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects: The embodiment of social suspicion and fishy smells., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103 (5) 737-749. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029708

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5:13 PM | Optical Cables, from Thin Air!
It’s a project that would make Tesla proud. Just imagine being able to instantaneously run an optical cable or fiber to any point on earth, or even into space. That’s […]

Rosenthal, E., Jhajj, N., Wahlstrand, J. & Milchberg, H. (2014). Collection of remote optical signals by air waveguides, Optica, 1 (1) 5. DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.1.000005

Jhajj, N., Rosenthal, E., Birnbaum, R., Wahlstrand, J. & Milchberg, H. (2014). Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air, Physical Review X, 4 (1) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.011027

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8:32 AM | Common variation and the genetics of autism
The paper by Trent Gaugler and colleagues [1] reporting that the genetic architecture of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) seems in the most part to be due to "common variation" over and above "rare variants or spontaneous glitches" adds to the quite voluminous literature in this area.Everything in proportion? @ Wikipedia Based on an analysis of "a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden" researchers looked at DNA variations in some 3000 individuals with autism and asymptomatic […]

Gaugler T, Klei L, Sanders SJ, Bodea CA, Goldberg AP, Lee AB, Mahajan M, Manaa D, Pawitan Y, Reichert J & Ripke S (2014). Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation., Nature genetics, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25038753

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July 21, 2014

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5:27 PM | Autism and Parents: Reducing stress
Raising an autistic child can be a gift. Unfortunately it can also be challenging and stressful. Let’s be real, it’s stressful just being a parent, throw in a disability that […]

Dykens E.M. & Fisher M.H. (2014). Reducing Distress in Mothers of Children With Autism and Other Disabilities: A Randomized Trial, Pediatrics , DOI: doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3164

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1:46 PM | A History of Bioinformatics (told from the Year 2039)
A week or so back I was watching the chatter around the #ISMB / #BOSC2014 meeting, and saw a number of amusing and intriguing comments about Titus Brown’s keynote talk. CTB talking as if date were 2039. "'bioinformatics' and 'systems biology' are now simply 'biology" #BOSC2014 — Stephen Turner (@genetics_blog) July 11, 2014 #BOSC2014 @ctitusbrown […]

Stein L.D. (2008). Bioinformatics: alive and kicking, Genome Biology, 9 (12) 114. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2008-9-12-114

Heinlein R. (1952). Where to?, Galaxy Magazine, February 13-22. Other:

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8:29 AM | It's time for Western psychology to recognise that many individuals, and even entire cultures, fear happiness
It's become a mantra of the modern Western world that the ultimate aim of life is to achieve happiness. Self-help blog posts on how to be happy are almost guaranteed popularity (the Digest has its own!). Pro-happiness organisations have appeared, such as Action for Happiness, which aims to "create a happier society for everyone." Topping it all, an increasing number of governments, including in the UK, have started measuring national well-being (seen as a proxy for "happiness") - the argument […]

Joshanloo, M. & Weijers, D. (2013). Aversion to Happiness Across Cultures: A Review of Where and Why People are Averse to Happiness, Journal of Happiness Studies, 15 (3) 717-735. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9489-9

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7:24 AM | Autism and asthma yet again
"Asthma is approximately 35 % more common in autistic children".Pipe down @ Wikipedia That was the finding reported by Stanley Kotey and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) dataset, a resource looking at "the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age" resident in the United States. I don't intend to dwell too much on the Kotey findings aside from pointing out: (a) the reported prevalence of autism […]

Kotey, S., Ertel, K. & Whitcomb, B. (2014). Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2174-y

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July 20, 2014

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7:43 PM | Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry
A fascinating little paper in Brain examines Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. It’s a collaboration by British neurologist Edward H. Reynolds and Assyriologist James V. Kinnier Wilson. The sources they discuss are almost 4,000 years old, dating to the Old Babylonian Dynasty of 1894 – 1595 BC. Writing in cuneiform script impressed into clay tablets, […]The post Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry appeared first on Neuroskeptic.

Reynolds EH & Kinnier Wilson JV (2014). Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon., Brain : a journal of neurology, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25037816

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5:29 PM | Cooperative sperm, killer sperm and the competition for reproductive success
In the closing paragraph of on the origin of species Darwin famously said that nature was a war in which individuals struggle against each other and the environment for survival. […]

Moller, A. (1989). Ejaculate Quality, Testes Size and Sperm Production in Mammals, Functional Ecology, 3 (1) 91-96. DOI: 10.2307/2389679

Moore H, Dvoráková K, Jenkins N & Breed W (2002). Exceptional sperm cooperation in the wood mouse., Nature, 418 (6894) 174-7. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12110888

Pearcy M, Delescaille N, Lybaert P & Aron S (2014). Team swimming in ant spermatozoa., Biology letters, 10 (6) PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919705

Byrne PG, Simmons LW & Roberts JD (2003). Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs., Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 270 (1528) 2079-86. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561298

Mackie JB & Walker MH (1974). A study of the conjugate sperm of the dytiscid water beetles Dytiscus marginalis and Colymbetes fuscus., Cell and tissue research, 148 (4) 505-19. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4836644

Bjork A, Dallai R & Pitnick S (2007). Adaptive modulation of sperm production rate in Drosophila bifurca, a species with giant sperm., Biology letters, 3 (5) 517-9. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17594959

Buckland-Nicks, J. (1998). Prosobranch parasperm: Sterile germ cells that promote paternity?, Micron, 29 (4) 267-280. DOI: 10.1016/S0968-4328(97)00064-4

Baker, R. & Bellis, M. (1989). Elaboration of the Kamikaze Sperm Hypothesis: a reply to Harcourt, Animal Behaviour, 37 865-867. DOI: 10.1016/0003-3472(89)90074-2

Moore, H., Martin, M. & Birkhead, T. (1999). No evidence for killer sperm or other selective interactions between human spermatozoa in ejaculates of different males in vitro, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 266 (1436) 2343-2350. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1999.0929

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