Posts

August 15, 2014

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3:34 PM | Breaking research: A new technique for uncovering cell-specific differences in the Drosophila “interactome”
You’ve probably heard the term “genome” before, which refers to the set of genes in an organism.  Biology has a lot of buzzwords for describing what’s going on inside cells, and one of the recent ones is “interactome”. The word “interactome” refers to all of the interactions that are occurring between proteins, the large molecules […]

Mukherjee K., Bethany L. Christmann & Leslie C. Griffith (2014). Neuron-specific protein interactions of Drosophila CASK-β are revealed by mass spectrometry, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 7 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2014.00058

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1:18 PM | Gene Therapy- The Future of Schizophrenia Treatment?
A study was recently released in Nature looking at genes linked to schizophrenia with the hope of helping researchers to find a whole host of brand new treatments for patients […]

Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci., Nature, 511 (7510) 421-7. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056061

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8:21 AM | Researchers Trace the Beginnings of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Blood cellsRed blood cell (left), a platelet (middle) and a white blood cell.Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiate to all other blood cell types, but there are still many questions about their development and how their fate is decided.Now, in a new paper published online this week in Nature, researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine elaborate upon a crucial signaling pathway and the role of key proteins, which may help clear the way to generate HSCs […]

Kobayashi I, Kobayashi-Sun J, Kim AD, Pouget C, Fujita N, Suda T & Traver D (2014). Jam1a-Jam2a interactions regulate haematopoietic stem cell fate through Notch signalling., Nature, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119047

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8:07 AM | Psychotic experience following childhood neurodevelopmental diagnosis
The paper by Golam Khandaker and colleagues [1] suggesting a higher risk of psychotic episodes (PEs) in early adolescence among those with a diagnosed childhood neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) makes for some interesting reading. Detailing several diagnoses as falling under the banner of neurodevelopmental disorder (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia), researchers concluded that: "The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those […]

Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G & Jones PB (2014). A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence., Psychological medicine, 1-10. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25066026

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12:25 AM | Few but strong: dense tornado clusters on the rise in the United States
Driving along a US highway, this is not something you want to see out your side window.  The United States has the highest rate of tornadoes per year compared to any other country, so unfortunately this is something many US … Continue reading →

JB Elsner, SC Elsner, TH Jagger (2014). The increasing efficiency of tornado days in the United States, Climate Dynamics,

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August 14, 2014

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7:35 PM | Bringing the Fight to hidden HIV
We’ve got even more news for the HIV cure front. Yesterday we talked about broadly neutralizing antibodies, today we are going to be touching on that yet again,so if you […]

Ariel Halper-Stromberg, Ching-Lan Lu, Florian Klein, Joshua A. Horwitz, Stylianos Bournazos, Lilian Nogueira, Thomas R. Eisenreich, Cassie Liu, Anna Gazumyan, Uwe Schaefer, Rebecca C. Furze, Michael S. Seaman & Rab Prinjha, Alexander Tarakhovsky (2014). Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice, Cell, Other:

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1:30 PM | Competition for ecological niches limits evolution of new species | @GrrlScientist
A recently published study finds that competition for ecological niches limits the evolution of new species. Further, this study finds that speciation rate slows or even stops as available ecological niches fill up. Why are there so many more species in some regions than in others? According to a recent study, competition for ecological niches limits the evolution of new species. Further, this study, which analysed the genetic and evolutionary relationships between all 461 species of Himalayan […]

Price T.D., Hooper D.M., Buchanan C.D., Johansson U.S., Tietze D.T., Alström P., Olsson U., Ghosh-Harihar M., Ishtiaq F. & Gupta S.K. & (2014). Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature13272

FJELDSÅ J. (2013). The global diversification of songbirds (Oscines) and the build-up of the Sino-Himalayan diversity hotspot, Chinese Birds, 4 (2) 132-143. DOI: 10.5122/cbirds.2013.0014

Richman A.D. & Price T. (1992). Evolution of ecological differences in the Old World leaf warblers, Nature, 355 817-821. DOI: 10.1038/355817a0

Kennedy J.D., Weir J.T., Hooper D.M., Tietze D.T., Martens J. & Price T.D. (2012). Ecological limits on diversification of the Himalayan core Corvoidea, Evolution, 66 (8) 2599-2613. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01618.x

Alström P., Hooper D.M., Liu Y., Olsson U., Mohan D., Gelang M., Hung L.M., Zhao J., Lei F. & Price T.D. & (2014). Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds, Biology Letters, 10 (3) DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.1067

Harmon L.J., Schulte J.A., Larson A. & Losos J.B. (2003). Tempo and Mode of Evolutionary Radiation in Iguanian Lizards, Science, 301 (5635) 961-964 . DOI: 10.1126/science.1084786

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8:09 AM | Learning disability in autism: how prevalent is it?
"Results showed that 36.8 % of the children met the criteria for ID [intellectual disability], with 60.2 % of these in the mild range (IQ 50-69) and 39.8 % in the moderate range (IQ 35-49)".That was the finding reported by Mélina Rivard and colleagues [1] looking at the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (also called learning disability here in Blighty) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) "in young children". Based on an analysis of over 200 children diagnosed with an ASD, […]

Rivard M, Terroux A, Mercier C & Parent-Boursier C (2014). Indicators of Intellectual Disabilities in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders., Journal of autism and developmental disorders, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25070470

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7:50 AM | Australian Researchers Unravel the Mystery of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Generation
Professor Peter CurrieCreditA cure for a range of blood disorders and immune diseases is in sight, according to a team of scientists who have unravelled the mystery of hematopoietic stem cell generation. The new study, led by researchers at the Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI) at Monash University and the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, appeared yesterday in Nature. It identifies for the first time mechanisms in the body that trigger hematopoietic stem cell […]

Nguyen P.D., Carmen Sonntag, Lee Barry Miles, Thomas Edward Hall, Silke Berger, Kristine Joy Fernandez, David Baruch Gurevich, Nicholas James Cole, Sara Alaei & Mirana Ramialison & (2014). Haematopoietic stem cell induction by somite-derived endothelial cells controlled by meox1, Nature, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13678

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August 13, 2014

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5:36 PM | HIV Vaccine One Step Closer to Reality
The war on HIV, that tricky little guy has avoided every thing we could throw at it in a broad sense. Sure a few people here and there get lucky, […]

Verkoczy L. & Barton F. Haynes (2014). HIV-1 Envelope gp41 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: Hurdles for Vaccine Development, PLoS Pathogens, 10 (5) e1004073. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004073

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4:00 PM | A Tale of Two Aphasias
It’s 1861, and the French neurologist Paul Broca is examining a new patient. Dr. Broca is puzzled because all the patient can say is “tan.” When Dr. Broca asks him questions, Tan cannot seem to form the words. However, it is clear that Tan can understand language because, when he asked to whistle or sing … Continue reading →

Price C.J. (2000). The anatomy of language: contributions from functional neuroimaging, Journal of Anatomy, 197 (3) 335-359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19730335.x

Kertesz A. (1993). Clinical Forms of Aphasia, Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum, 52-58. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-9239-9_9

Damasio A. (1984). The Neural Basis of Language, Annual Review of Neuroscience, 7 (1) 127-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.7.1.127

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Editor's Pick
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1:37 PM | Video Tip of the Week: EpiViz Genome Browsing (and more)
This is the browser I’ve been waiting for. Stop what you are doing right now and look at EpiViz. I’ll wait. I spend a lot of time looking at visualizations of various types of -omics data, from a number of different sources. I’ve never believed in the “one browser to rule them all” sort of […]

Chelaru F., Smith L., Goldstein N. & Bravo H.C. (2014). Epiviz: interactive visual analytics for functional genomics data., Nature methods, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086505

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12:00 PM | Getting High On Life
Biology concepts – bacteria, climate, respiratory, birds, arthropods, astrobiology, cloudsCarl Sagan wasn’t just the host of the original Cosmoson TV. He solved the riddles of Venus’ high temperature, the seasons on Mars, and the color of Titan. He also wrote one of my favorite speculative fiction novels, Contact. The movie is good; the book is better.The astrophysicist Carl Sagan said, “There are naive questions, tedious questions, ill-phrased questions, questions put […]

Pawar SP, Dhotre DP, Shetty SA, Chowdhury SP, Chaudhari BL & Shouche YS (2012). Genome sequence of Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307, isolated from the stratospheric air., Journal of bacteriology, 194 (23) 6629-30. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144385

Dillon ME & Dudley R (2014). Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees., Biology letters, 10 (2) 20130922. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501268

Hawkes LA, Balachandran S, Batbayar N, Butler PJ, Chua B, Douglas DC, Frappell PB, Hou Y, Milsom WK, Newman SH & Prosser DJ (2013). The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus., Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280 (1750) 20122114. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118436

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12:26 AM | Electron-spin clue to how general anesthesia works
Weird fact: general anesthesia (GA) can be used on animals as diverse as humans, elephants and even protozoa (single-celled animals). Weirder fact: despite anesthetics being used in surgery for hundreds (or arguably thousands) of years, we still don’t fully understand how general anesthesia works on a biochemical level. But a new study by a team…

Turin L., Skoulakis E. & Horsfield A. (2014). Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophila, PNAS, Early edition (N/A) N/A-N/A. DOI: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404387111

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12:19 AM | Synthetic Cannabis Can Cause Cyclic Vomiting
Another reason to skip "Spice."Cannabinoid hyperemesis,  as it is known, was not documented in the medical literature until 2004. Case studies of more than 100 patients have been reported since then. The biomedical researcher who blogs as Drugmonkey has documented cases of hyperemesis that had been reported in Australia and New Zealand, as well as Omaha and Boston in the U.S.As Drugmonkey reported, patients who are heavy marijuana smokers, and who experience cyclic nausea and vomiting, […]

Bick B.L. & Thomas F. Mangan (2014). Synthetic Cannabinoid Leading to Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89 (8) 1168-1169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.06.013

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12:19 AM | Synthetic Cannabis Can Cause Cyclic Vomiting
Another reason to skip "Spice."Cannabinoid hyperemesis,  as it is known, was not documented in the medical literature until 2004. Case studies of more than 100 patients have been reported since then. The biomedical researcher who blogs as Drugmonkey has documented cases of hyperemesis that had been reported in Australia and New Zealand, as well as Omaha and Boston in the U.S.As Drugmonkey reported, patients who are heavy marijuana smokers, and who experience cyclic nausea and vomiting, […]

Bick B.L. & Thomas F. Mangan (2014). Synthetic Cannabinoid Leading to Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89 (8) 1168-1169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.06.013

Bick B.L. & Thomas F. Mangan (2014). Synthetic Cannabinoid Leading to Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89 (8) 1168-1169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.06.013

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August 12, 2014

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8:24 PM | Epigenetics Has Large Say in the Fate of Blood Stem Cells
Epigenetics: Environmental effects influence how genes are turned on or off.Credit: Image courtesy of Weizmann Institute of ScienceEvery day trillions of blood cells are being formed in our body: from the oxygen-carrying red blood cells to the many types of white blood cells that fight pathogens and infection. All of these highly specialized cells originate from hematopoietic (blood) stem cells -- unique cells that have the potential to mature into all blood types. How exactly is the fate […]

Lara-Astiaso D, Weiner A, Lorenzo-Vivas E, Zaretsky I, Jaitin DA, David E, Keren-Shaul H, Mildner A, Winter D, Jung S & Friedman N (2014). Chromatin state dynamics during blood formation., Science (New York, N.Y.), PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103404

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7:17 PM | The responsibility of demand: air travel projected to create net increase in greenhouse gas emissions
There are many ways that individuals can make lifestyle changes to aid in the global mission of reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.  Just to name a few…eat less meat, drive less, monitor air conditioning/heating and improve insulation, buy compact … Continue reading →

Matt Grote, Ian Williams, John Preston (2014). Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft, Atmospheric Environment,

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6:07 PM | Treatment and Prevention of PTSD
It’s no secret for anyone who follows me that I am a Marine veteran. It’s also no secret for anyone who follows me that I’ve had my own ups and […]

Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Hagit Cohen, Guiqing Caia, Joseph D. Buxbaum & Rachel Yehuda (2014). Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111 (32) Other:

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August 11, 2014

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5:30 PM | New Hope for Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune diseases are on the rise. Since I have a history of over sharing, my Uncle suffered from a form of lupus. It caused him intense and — in my […]

Chhabra S, Chang SC, Nguyen HM, Huq R, Tanner MR, Londono LM, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Upadhyay SK & Gindin M (2014). Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases., FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891519

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August 10, 2014

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4:03 PM | Pregnancy and Antibacterial Soap a Potentially Dangerous Combination
My wife likes to sanitize everything with bleach. I don’t really approve, but I bite my tongue because it makes her feel better. Germs are everywhere and honestly there is […]

Pycke BF, Geer LA, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Jenck AM & Halden RU (2014). Human biomonitoring of prenatal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in a multiethnic urban population from Brooklyn, New York, Environmental Science & Technology , 8831-8838. Other:

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9:00 AM | Canine Science Forum 2014 - we come full circle!
Aw - it's Us @ CSF2014! Thanks Tamás Faragó :)Dear Julie,while you've been off enjoying the fjords of Norway and I've been recovering from six legs of long haul flying with a three year old as hand luggage, I thought I'd put up a quick post to recap the wonderful week in Lincoln, UK that was the (Feline and) Canine Science Forum 2014.Such a fun, stimulating, inspiring week comprising the Feline Science day (Monday), public lecture by James Serpell (rhymes with […]

Hecht J. (2014). Tribute to Tinbergen: Public Engagement in Ethology, Ethology, 120 (3) 207-214. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eth.12199

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August 09, 2014

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5:45 PM | Marijuana and the Developing Brain
You can’t get away from it, the big marijuana debate here in the US. Is it good? Is it bad? What are other countries doing? There are also a lot […]

Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Liu H, Berry YC, Tobin M, Nelson J & Castellanos FX & (1999). Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study., Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 23 (4) 571-88. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10390717

Giedd, J. N (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain, Adolescent Brain Development: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities,

Giedd, J. N., J. Blumenthal, et al (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study, Nature Neuroscience,

Friese B & Grube JW (2013). Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths., Drugs (Abingdon, England), 20 (1) 33-39. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641127

Chadwick B, Miller ML & Hurd YL (2013). Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness., Frontiers in psychiatry, 4 129. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24133461

Lisdahl, K., Wright, N., Medina-Kirchner, C., Maple, K. & Shollenbarger, S. (2014). Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults, Current Addiction Reports, 1 (2) 144-156. DOI: 10.1007/s40429-014-0019-6

Choo EK, Benz M, Zaller N, Warren O, Rising KL & McConnell KJ (2014). The impact of state medical marijuana legislation on adolescent marijuana use., The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 55 (2) 160-6. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24742758

Joffe A, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse & American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (2004). Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth., Pediatrics, 113 (6) 1825-6. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15173518

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4:46 PM | Terminal Lucidity: Myth, Mystery or Miracle?
Can sick people gain mental clarity just before they die? University of Virginia researchers Michael Nahm and Bruce Greyson explore this issue in a gripping (if macabre) paper published in the journal Omega: The death of Anna Katharina Ehmer: a case study in terminal lucidity.The authors discuss the case of Anna Katharina Ehmer, a German […]The post Terminal Lucidity: Myth, Mystery or Miracle? appeared first on Neuroskeptic.

Nahm M & Greyson B (2013). The death of Anna Katharina Ehmer: a case study in terminal lucidity., Omega, 68 (1) 77-87. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24547666

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August 08, 2014

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10:00 PM | Psychiatry and inflammation (again)
I'd like to bring two papers to your attention in today's very quick post."The Death Star plans are not in the main computer"First up is the article by Kahn & Sommer [1] (open-access) titled: 'The neurobiology and treatment of first-episode schizophrenia'. It's about as good a read as we have so far on the topic of "brain changes in the first phase of schizophrenia" and the various management options for first-episode schizophrenia. Outside of the very important fact that "It is highly […]

Kahn RS & Sommer IE (2014). The neurobiology and treatment of first-episode schizophrenia., Molecular psychiatry, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25048005

Friedrich MJ (2014). Research on Psychiatric Disorders Targets Inflammation., JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25054339

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7:36 PM | The Self Assembling Brain
Let’s face it, if the brain were a lego set I would still be staring at the box wondering what I got myself into. So I guess we can just […]

Lorenzo I. Finci et. al (2014). The Crystal Structure of Netrin-1 in Complex with DCC Reveals the Bifunctionality of Netrin-1 As a Guidance Cue, Neuron, Other:

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6:14 PM | La matematica delle lacrime
Un gruppo di fisici che studiano la meccanica dei fluidi ha iniziato una proficua collaborazione con Kara Maki riguardo lo studio dinamico delle "pellicole" di lacrime. Il modello, sviluppato in tre articoli che hanno preceduto il lavoro conclusivo, soprattutto sperimentale, è così descritto: all'interno della pellicola lacrimale, le dinamiche del fluido sono governate dalle equazioni incomprimibili di Navier-Stokes insieme con la conservazione di massa ed energia. Alla superficie […]

Miller A., Carchman R., Long R. & Denslow S.A. La Crosse viral infection in hospitalized pediatric patients in Western North Carolina., Hospital pediatrics, (26) PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313031

Maki K.L., Braun R.J., Henshaw W.D. & King-Smith P.E. (2010). Tear film dynamics on an eye-shaped domain I: pressure boundary conditions., Mathematical medicine and biology : a journal of the IMA, 27 (3) 227-254. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20064825

Maki K.L., Braun R.J., Ucciferro P., Henshaw W.D. & King-Smith P.E. (2010). Tear film dynamics on an eye-shaped domain. Part 2. Flux boundary conditions, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 647 361-390. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s002211200999382x

Maki K.L., Braun R.J. & P. E. King-Smith (2008). An overset grid method for the study of reflex tearing, Mathematical Medicine and Biology, 25 (3) 187-214. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/dqn013

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2:27 PM | It Only Takes Six Generations to Turn a Brown Butterfly Purple
Evolution can seem like a slow way to get things done. It took more than a billion years for Earth’s life forms to try having more than one cell. In the famous March of Progress illustration showing an ape becoming an upright human, you can almost hear the stoop-shouldered cave guy in the middle groaning, “Hurry […]The post It Only Takes Six Generations to Turn a Brown Butterfly Purple appeared first on Inkfish.

Wasik, B., Liew, S., Lilien, D., Dinwiddie, A., Noh, H., Cao, H. & Monteiro, A. (2014). Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1402770111

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1:52 PM | Know your brain: Corpus callosum
Corpus callosum (in red).CC image courtesy of Life Science Databases(LSDB). Where is it?The corpus callosum is a large, C-shaped nerve fiber bundle found beneath the cerebral cortex. It stretches across the midline of the brain, connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres. It makes up the largest collection of white matter tissue found in the brain.What is it and what does it do?To understand the role of the corpus callosum, it is first important to remember that the […]

Gazzaniga MS (2005). Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong., Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 6 (8) 653-9. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16062172

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1:13 PM | Translational Findings: How fruit fly research has already contributed to human health
In my previous post, I described how Drosophila melanogaster serves as an important and relevant model organism for biological research.  But how is fruit fly research actually helping us to better understand ourselves?  In my future “Translational Findings” posts, I will talk about how fruit flies are furthering our understanding of a specific human-related issue. These […]

Morgan TH (1910). SEX LIMITED INHERITANCE IN DROSOPHILA., Science (New York, N.Y.), 32 (812) 120-2. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17759620

Muller HJ (1927). ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION OF THE GENE., Science (New York, N.Y.), 66 (1699) 84-7. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802387

Nüsslein-Volhard C & Wieschaus E (1980). Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila., Nature, 287 (5785) 795-801. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6776413

Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart JM & Hoffmann JA (1996). The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults., Cell, 86 (6) 973-83. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8808632

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