Posts

January 07, 2015

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9:58 AM | Some people think they know themselves well, but do they really?
Some people will tell you that they have a clear sense of who they are, and that their sense of self is stable over time. Psychologists refer to this as having high "self-concept clarity". In a new study, Jean Guerrettaz and Robert Arkin shine a spotlight on these self-proclaimed self-knowers. The researchers find that their confidence is often fragile, and that somewhat paradoxically, it is people confident in their sense of self whose self-esteem is most undermined by challenging questions […]

Guerrettaz, J. & Arkin, R. (2014). Who Am I? How Asking the Question Changes the Answer, Self and Identity, 14 (1) 90-103. DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2014.955049

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9:55 AM | Inflaming inflammation and autism: linking microglial activation and neuronal activity
It has been quite a few weeks since the publication of the paper by Simone Gupta and colleagues [1] (open-access) talking about "observations [that] provide pathways and candidate genes that highlight the interplay between innate immunity and neuronal activity in the aetiology of autism."I'm a wrecker. I wreck things, professionally. I mean.At the time of publication in early December (2014), there was quite a bit of media interest in the findings as per reports such as this one and […]

Gupta S, Ellis SE, Ashar FN, Moes A, Bader JS, Zhan J, West AB & Arking DE (2014). Transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of innate immune response genes and neuronal activity-dependent genes in autism., Nature communications, 5 5748. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494366

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5:21 AM | Did Jane Austen die from (a) Addison’s disease, (b) cancer, or (c) disseminated bovine tuberculosis?
Jane Austen, writer extraordinaire, died in July 1817 at the age of 41.  Amazingly for her time, she had survived childhood and–by remaining a spinster–avoided childbirth, which killed off four of her sisters-in-law.  But despite this early good luck, good … Continue reading →

COPE Z (1964). JANE AUSTEN'S LAST ILLNESS., British medical journal, 2 (5402) 182-3. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14150900

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4:45 AM | Cataloging a year of blogging: cancer and biology
Welcome to 111101111. Another year has come to an end, and it is time to embrace tradition and reflect on the past twelve months. In fact, I will try to do one better and start a new tradition: cataloging a year of blogging. Last year, I split up the 83 content heavy posts of 2013 […]

Kaznatcheev, A., Scott, J.G. & Basanta, D. (2014). Edge effects in game theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours., arXiv, arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.6914v2

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January 06, 2015

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11:10 PM | Tropical forests absorbing more carbon dioxide than previously thought
We have another reason to love the rainforest, and not just for the plethora of exotic species, beautifully lush forests, and zip-lining vacations, either!  New research out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory combines a host of modeling data backed by experimental measurements … Continue reading →

Schimel D, Stephens BB & Fisher JB (2014). Effect of increasing CO2 on the terrestrial carbon cycle., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25548156

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6:16 PM | Lots of selfies may suggest you’re a narcissist
Well I’ve got some bad news to all you selfie fanatics out there, a new study showed that men who posted more online photos of themselves than others scored higher on measures of narcissism and psychopathy. The study looked exclusively at men, however the men out there should have no fear, there is a follow […]

Fox, J. & Rooney, M. (2015). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites, Personality and Individual Differences, 76 161-165. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.017

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10:05 AM | Could violent video games make players more moral in the real world?
Video games allow players to indulge in simulated behaviours that in the real world would be highly antisocial or unethical, and many people are concerned how this might spill over from the screen to the street. A new study, however, suggests that such activities can elicit a moral response in players, reinforcing the potential of the medium as a means of civic development.In the study developed by Matthew Grizzard and colleagues, players of a first-person shooter game reported higher levels of […]

Grizzard, M., Tamborini, R., Lewis, R., Wang, L. & Prabhu, S. (2014). Being Bad in a Video Game Can Make Us Morally Sensitive, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17 (8) 499-504. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0658

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9:40 AM | Olanzapine, gut bacteria and weight gain in mice
"These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients."That was the summary statement derived from data published by Andrew Morgan and colleagues [1] (open-access) looking at how some of those trillions of wee beasties which colonise humans and animals (the microbiome) may very well influence response to medicines... at least in mice. The authors' specific focus on […]

Morgan AP, Crowley JJ, Nonneman RJ, Quackenbush CR, Miller CN, Ryan AK, Bogue MA, Paredes SH, Yourstone S, Carroll IM & Kawula TH (2014). The Antipsychotic Olanzapine Interacts with the Gut Microbiome to Cause Weight Gain in Mouse., PloS one, 9 (12) PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25506936

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January 05, 2015

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8:42 PM | Creating a better diet pill: The new drug that is making big promises
Losing the weight, some of us never seem to be able to do it. Whether it is poor choice in diet, a medical condition, or just a sedentary lifestyle, people everywhere are finding they can’t shed the pounds. Now there is a new drug that promises help in the weight loss department and works like nothing we’ve […]

Fang, S., Suh, J., Reilly, S., Yu, E., Osborn, O., Lackey, D., Yoshihara, E., Perino, A., Jacinto, S., Lukasheva, Y. & Atkins, A. (2015). Intestinal FXR agonism promotes adipose tissue browning and reduces obesity and insulin resistance, Nature Medicine, DOI: 10.1038/nm.3760

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8:06 PM | Typical Dreams: A Comparison of Dreams Across Cultures
But I, being poor, have only my dreams; I have spread my dreams under your feet; Tread softly because you tread on my dreams.                                     William Butler Yeats – from "Aedh Wishes for the Cloths of Heaven"       Have you ever wondered how the content of your dreams differs from that of […]

Yu, C. (2008). Typical dreams experienced by Chinese people., Dreaming, 18 (1) 1-10. DOI: 10.1037/1053-0797.18.1.1

Nielsen, T., Zadra, A., Simard, V., Saucier, S., Stenstrom, P., Smith, C. & Kuiken, D. (2003). The Typical Dreams of Canadian University Students., Dreaming, 13 (4) 211-235. DOI: 10.1023/B:DREM.0000003144.40929.0b

Schredl M, Ciric P, Götz S & Wittmann L (2004). Typical dreams: stability and gender differences., The Journal of psychology, 138 (6) 485-94. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612605

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Editor's Pick
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7:32 PM | Journal Club: Halfsider: a bizarre half-male half-female bird
SUMMARY: A “halfsider” -- half male and half female bird -- has been mentioned in the news over the holidays. More properly known as bilateral gynandromorphs or tetragametic chimæras, these unusual birds are actually two genetically distinct individuals -- twins -- fused into one being. But what is it like to be such an individual? A recently published paper shares observations of the behaviour and social life of one such individual living in the wild. . "Halfsider" Northern […]

Peer B.D. (2014). Observations of a Bilateral Gynandromorph Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) , The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 126 (4) 778-781. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1676/14-025.1

Agate R.J., J. Wade, S. Mann, J. Wingfield, C. Schanen, A. Palotie & A. P. Arnold (2003). Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (8) 4873-4878. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0636925100

Chue J. (2011). Sex determination and sexual differentiation in the avian model, FEBS Journal, 278 (7) 1027-1034. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08032.x

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1:20 PM | The rabbit blastocyst modelling (for) vertebrate gastrulation
Form and function of animal gastrulation have been longstanding classics accompanying the rise of experimental embryology, and – as if to square the circle in the literal sense – the blastopore of Haeckel’s original ‘gastrea’ stage[1] was soon (and still is) considered analogous to the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals[2-4]. Both forms are […]

Yang, J. & Weinberg, R. (2008). Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: At the Crossroads of Development and Tumor Metastasis, Developmental Cell, 14 (6) 818-829. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.05.009

Coolen, M., Nicolle, D., Plouhinec, J., Gombault, A., Sauka-Spengler, T., Menuet, A., Pieau, C. & Mazan, S. (2008). Molecular Characterization of the Gastrula in the Turtle Emys orbicularis: An Evolutionary Perspective on Gastrulation, PLoS ONE, 3 (7) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002676

Bertocchini, F., Alev, C., Nakaya, Y. & Sheng, G. (2013). A little winning streak: The reptilian-eye view of gastrulation in birds, Development, Growth & Differentiation, 55 (1) 52-59. DOI: 10.1111/dgd.12014

Keller, R. (2002). Shaping the Vertebrate Body Plan by Polarized Embryonic Cell Movements, Science, 298 (5600) 1950-1954. DOI: 10.1126/science.1079478

Tada, M. & Heisenberg, C. (2012). Convergent extension: using collective cell migration and cell intercalation to shape embryos, Development, 139 (21) 3897-3904. DOI: 10.1242/dev.073007

Viebahn C, Stortz C, Mitchell SA & Blum M (2002). Low proliferative and high migratory activity in the area of Brachyury expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in the gastrulating rabbit embryo., Development (Cambridge, England), 129 (10) 2355-65. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11973268

Halacheva, V., Fuchs, M., Dönitz, J., Reupke, T., Püschel, B. & Viebahn, C. (2011). Planar cell movements and oriented cell division during early primitive streak formation in the mammalian embryo, Developmental Dynamics, 240 (8) 1905-1916. DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.22687

Habas, R., Kato, Y. & He, X. (2001). Wnt/Frizzled Activation of Rho Regulates Vertebrate Gastrulation and Requires a Novel Formin Homology Protein Daam1, Cell, 107 (7) 843-854. DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00614-6

Stankova, V., Tsikolia, N. & Viebahn, C. (2015). Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo, Development, 142 (1) 92-98. DOI: 10.1242/dev.111583

Arendt, D. & Nübler-Jung, K. (1999). Rearranging gastrulation in the name of yolk: evolution of gastrulation in yolk-rich amniote eggs, Mechanisms of Development, 81 (1-2) 3-22. DOI: 10.1016/S0925-4773(98)00226-3

Voiculescu, O., Bertocchini, F., Wolpert, L., Keller, R. & Stern, C. (2007). The amniote primitive streak is defined by epithelial cell intercalation before gastrulation, Nature, 449 (7165) 1049-1052. DOI: 10.1038/nature06211

Renfree, M. (2010). Review: Marsupials: Placental Mammals with a Difference, Placenta, 31 DOI: 10.1016/j.placenta.2009.12.023

Cretekos CJ, Weatherbee SD, Chen CH, Badwaik NK, Niswander L, Behringer RR & Rasweiler JJ 4th (2005). Embryonic staging system for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, a model organism for the mammalian order Chiroptera, based upon timed pregnancies in captive-bred animals., Developmental dynamics, 233 (3) 721-38. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15861401

Osteil, P., Tapponnier, Y., Markossian, S., Godet, M., Schmaltz-Panneau, B., Jouneau, L., Cabau, C., Joly, T., Blachere, T., Gocza, E. & Bernat, A. (2013). Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from rabbits exhibit some characteristics of naive pluripotency, Biology Open, 2 (6) 613-628. DOI: 10.1242/bio.20134242

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11:02 AM | British first-time fathers describe their experiences of separation and helplessness
Ante-natal classes only serve to increase fathers' feelings of separation from their pregnant partners, according to a series of in-depth interviews with ten White British fathers.Anja Wittkowski and her colleagues interviewed the men to help increase our understanding of what it's like for men to become a father for the first time - a neglected area of research. All the participants, aged 27 to 47, were married to their partners, they were middle-class, employed, and the pregnancies were all […]

Kowlessar, O., Fox, J. & Wittkowski, A. (2014). First-time fathers’ experiences of parenting during the first year, Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/02646838.2014.971404

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January 04, 2015

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7:43 PM | Outsmarting superbugs’ countermoves to antibiotics
With drug-resistant bacteria on the rise, even common infections that were easily controlled for decades — such as pneumonia or urinary tract infections — are proving trickier to treat with standard antibiotics. New drugs are desperately needed, but so are ways to maximize the effective lifespan of these drugs. To accomplish that, researchers used software they […]

Reeve SM, Gainza P, Frey KM, Georgiev I, Donald BR & Anderson AC (2014). Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25552560

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January 03, 2015

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7:00 PM | Not everyone sees health decline from obesity, but why is that?
The news isn’t shy in reporting the effects of being obese, high blood pressure, and diabetes (just to name a few). However, new research demonstrates that obesity does not always go hand in hand with metabolic changes in the body that can lead to diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Determining how and why may help […]

Fabbrini E, Yoshino J, Yoshino M, Magkos F, Tiemann Luecking C, Samovski D, Fraterrigo G, Okunade AL, Patterson BW & Klein S & (2015). Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain., The Journal of clinical investigation, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555214

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10:17 AM | Anti-epileptic meds and pediatric serum vitamin D levels
No, I am not becoming obsessed with the sunshine vitamin/hormone despite us being only a few days into 2015 and this being my second post on vitamin D. It's just the way that the research posts fall; although regular readers will probably have noticed I do enjoy reading the various research on all-things vitamin D.There has been an awakening...The research fodder for today's post is the paper by Yun-Jin Lee and colleagues [1] who measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (in serum) for […]

Lee YJ, Park KM, Kim YM, Yeon GM & Nam SO (2014). Longitudinal Change of Vitamin D Status in Children With Epilepsy on Antiepileptic Drugs: Prevalence and Risk Factors., Pediatric neurology, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492388

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1:23 AM | The Futility of Progesterone for Traumatic Brain Injury (but hope for the future)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem that affects about 1.5 million people per year in the US, with direct and indirect medical costs of over $50 billion. Rapid intervention to reduce the risk of death and disability is crucial. The diagnosis and treatment of TBI is an active area of preclinical and clinical research funded by NIH and other federal agencies. But during the White House BRAIN Conference, a leading neurosurgeon painted a pessimistic picture of current […]

Schwamm, L. (2014). Progesterone for Traumatic Brain Injury — Resisting the Sirens' Song, New England Journal of Medicine, 371 (26) 2522-2523. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1412951

Skolnick, B., Maas, A., Narayan, R., van der Hoop, R., MacAllister, T., Ward, J., Nelson, N. & Stocchetti, N. (2014). A Clinical Trial of Progesterone for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, New England Journal of Medicine, 371 (26) 2467-2476. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411090

Wright, D., Yeatts, S., Silbergleit, R., Palesch, Y., Hertzberg, V., Frankel, M., Goldstein, F., Caveney, A., Howlett-Smith, H., Bengelink, E. & Manley, G. (2014). Very Early Administration of Progesterone for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury, New England Journal of Medicine, 371 (26) 2457-2466. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1404304

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January 02, 2015

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11:46 PM | Resistance is (not so) Futile? Exploring Treatment Resistance in Eating Disorders
To me, the idea of “treatment resistance” in eating disorders sparks some ill feelings. While many have suggested that treatment resistance is common among those with eating disorders, others have noted how receiving the label of “treatment resistant” can make it more difficult to receive needed support or impact how one is perceived in treatment settings and how one’s behaviours are interpreted (e.g., Gremillion, 2003). Of course, this is a tricky ground to […]

Abbate-Daga, G., Amianto, F., Delsedime, N., De-Bacco, C. & Fassino, S. (2013). Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: A critical challenge, BMC Psychiatry, 13 (1) 294. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-294

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7:28 PM | HIV vaccines may make things worse
Despite what conspiracy theorists say, there is no cure for HIV. Not that people aren’t feverously working hard to find one, it is just really hard to do. To illustrate that point researchers have found that vaccines designed to protect against HIV can backfire and lead to increased rates of infection. This unfortunate effect has been […]

Carnathan DG, Wetzel KS, Yu J, Lee ST, Johnson BA, Paiardini M, Yan J, Morrow MP, Sardesai NY, Weiner DB & Ertl HC (2014). Activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells in the rectum predict increased SIV acquisition in SIVGag/Tat-vaccinated rhesus macaques., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25550504

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1:00 PM | New Year’s Special: Flies in Space (and other news from 2014)
Fruit fly researchers published thousands of papers in 2014, and several of them were picked up by the media. I even reviewed a couple of these popular stories on this blog. In April, the Seghal lab published a paper showing that sleep loss in young flies led to abnormal brain development and behavioral deficits in […]

Baudier K.M., Nirali Patel, Katherine L. Diangelus, Sean O'Donnell & Daniel R. Marenda (2014). Erythritol, a Non-Nutritive Sugar Alcohol Sweetener and the Main Component of Truvia®, Is a Palatable Ingested Insecticide, PLoS ONE, 9 (6) e98949. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098949

Taylor K., Michael D. George, Rachel Morgan, Tangi Smallwood, Ann S. Hammonds, Patrick M. Fuller, Perot Saelao, Jeff Alley, Charles A. Fuller & Deborah A. Kimbrell & (2014). Toll Mediated Infection Response Is Altered by Gravity and Spaceflight in Drosophila, PLoS ONE, 9 (1) e86485. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086485

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8:19 AM | Vitamin D and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome continued
Hello again and a very warm welcome back to Questioning Answers in 2015. The year, according to a popular sequel, we were all supposed to be benefiting from hoverboards and wearing self-drying clothes. It didn't quite work out like that (although there are still 52 weeks left for such dreams to come to fruition).When we got adopted by a bald guy, I thought this would be more like Annie.We start the new blogging year with a few comments on a rather interesting, if disappointing, set of results […]

Witham MD, Adams F, McSwiggan S, Kennedy G, Kabir G, Belch JJ & Khan F (2014). Effect of intermittent vitamin D3 on vascular function and symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome - A randomised controlled trial., Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455721

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January 01, 2015

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6:27 PM | New cancer treatment targets telomeres
Cancer, right now we don’t have much to fight it besides the standard surgery or chemo, neither of which is a great option. Well now scientists have targeted telomeres with a small molecule called 6-thiodG that takes advantage of the cell’s ‘biological clock’ to kill cancer cells and shrink tumor growth. Ideally this new technique will help […]

Mender I, Gryaznov S, Dikmen ZG, Wright WE & Shay JW (2014). Induction of Telomere Dysfunction Mediated by the Telomerase Substrate Precursor 6-Thio-2'-Deoxyguanosine., Cancer discovery, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25516420

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December 31, 2014

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6:48 PM | A surprising discovery about fast food portion sizes
Since the noticeable expansion of most of the worlds waistlines, people have come to lay the blame (amongst other things) almost squarely on fast food and ever increasing portion sizes. While the world and it’s leaders are dealing with this mysterious problem by trying to help push fast food chains in the direction of change, it might […]

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE and Lichtenstein AH. (2014). Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat and Trans Fat Content in the United States, 1996-2013, Preventing Chronic Disease , Other:

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE, Lichtenstein AH, (2014). Sodium, Saturated Fat and Trans Fat Content Per 1,000 Kilocalories: Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurants, United States, 2000-2013, Preventing Chronic Disease , Other:

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2:18 PM | The Pine Marten of the Mourne Mountains
The Mourne Mountains situated in the south eastern corner of Northern Ireland are a granite mountain range. The area is popular with tourists, hillwalkers and those interested in wildlife. The Pine Marten One of the more elusive mammals present in the region is the pine marten, a species that has increased in range over the last 30 […]

O’Mahony, D., Turner, P. & O’Reilly, C. (2014). Pine marten (Martes martes) abundance in an insular mountainous region using non-invasive techniques, European Journal of Wildlife Research, DOI: 10.1007/s10344-014-0878-0

Sheehy, E., O’Meara, D., O’Reilly, C., Smart, A. & Lawton, C. (2013). A non-invasive approach to determining pine marten abundance and predation, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 60 (2) 223-236. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-013-0771-2

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2:18 PM | The Pine Marten of the Mourne Mountains
The Mourne Mountains situated in the south eastern corner of Northern Ireland are a granite mountain range. The area is popular with tourists, hillwalkers and those interested in wildlife. The Pine Marten One of the more elusive mammals present in the region is the pine marten, a species that has increased in range over the last 30 […]

O’Mahony, D., Turner, P. & O’Reilly, C. (2014). Pine marten (Martes martes) abundance in an insular mountainous region using non-invasive techniques, European Journal of Wildlife Research, DOI: 10.1007/s10344-014-0878-0

Sheehy, E., O’Meara, D., O’Reilly, C., Smart, A. & Lawton, C. (2013). A non-invasive approach to determining pine marten abundance and predation, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 60 (2) 223-236. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-013-0771-2

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1:00 PM | It May Be A New Year, But It’s The Same Old Brain
Biology concepts – learning, habit, long term potentiation, neural plasticity50% of Americans will make at least one New Year resolution, but a quarter of them won’t even make it one week before relapsing. However, those who write down a resolution are much more likely to make changes than those who don’t make a specific demand of themselves.I swear, this year I’m going to get these posts written a month in advance. Really, I mean it this time. I know I said the same […]

Wang, L., Li, F., Wang, D., Xie, K., Wang, D., Shen, X. & Tsien, J. (2011). NMDA Receptors in Dopaminergic Neurons Are Crucial for Habit Learning, Neuron, 72 (6) 1055-1066. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.10.019

Wang, W., Dever, D., Lowe, J., Storey, G., Bhansali, A., Eck, E., Nitulescu, I., Weimer, J. & Bamford, N. (2012). Regulation of prefrontal excitatory neurotransmission by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core, The Journal of Physiology, 590 (16) 3743-3769. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.235200

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Editor's Pick

December 30, 2014

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10:50 PM | Severe Lyme arthritis: Gagging on GAGs
Janis Weis' group has been mapping genetic variants that make laboratory mice prone to severe Lyme arthritis.  One of these variants is described in a paper that appeared in The Journal of Clinical Investigation earlier this year.  The affected gene encodes the enzyme β-glucuronidase, which carries out a critical function in the lysosome. β-glucuronidase cooperates with other degradative enzymes in the lysosome to break down glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) into their individual […]

Bramwell KK, Ma Y, Weis JH, Chen X, Zachary JF, Teuscher C & Weis JJ (2014). Lysosomal β-glucuronidase regulates Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis severity., The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124 (1) 311-320. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24334460

Bramwell KK, Teuscher C & Weis JJ (2014). Forward genetic approaches for elucidation of novel regulators of Lyme arthritis severity., Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 4 76. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24926442

Pancewicz S, Popko J, Rutkowski R, Knaś M, Grygorczuk S, Guszczyn T, Bruczko M, Szajda S, Zajkowska J, Kondrusik M & Sierakowski S (2009). Activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum and synovial fluid in patients with chronic Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis., Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 41 (8) 584-589. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19513935

Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, Prestwich GD, Mascarenhas MM, Garg HG, Quinn DA & Homer RJ (2005). Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan., Nature Medicine, 11 (11) 1173-1179. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16244651

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6:07 PM | Steak raises cancer risk and now we know why
Some of you may remember a recent study showing why red meat is bad for the heart, while now there is a study showing why steak — or in particular red meats — raise the risk of cancer. To be clear, I am still very much a red meat eater and this is no way […]

Samraj, A., Pearce, O., Läubli, H., Crittenden, A., Bergfeld, A., Banda, K., Gregg, C., Bingman, A., Secrest, P., Diaz, S. & Varki, N. (2014). A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201417508. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1417508112

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5:04 PM | Margaret Oakley Dayhoff, going on #ThatOtherShirt.
I’ve been a fan of Margaret Oakley Dayhoff for a long time. One of the most popular posts on this blog is the one linked in this tweet below. I can tell when students have been assigned a project to read up on her, because suddenly I see an influx of hits to the page. […]

Strasser B. (2011). The Experimenter's Museum: GenBank, Natural History, and the Moral Economies of Biomedicine, Isis, 102 (1) 60-96. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/658657

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3:21 PM | 9 Weird and Interesting Facts about Caecilians
There are about 200 species of caecilians (pronounced ‘seh-SILL-yuns’) but it's highly unlikely you have or will ever encounter one.  Why? Because they live underground, burrowing through loose soil and ground litter with their long, snake-like bodies. Read on to learn 9 weird and interesting facts about these unusual creatures. Bombay caecilian (Ichthyophis bombayensis) Credit - Wikicommons

Mohun, S., Davies, W., Bowmaker, J., Pisani, D., Himstedt, W., Gower, D., Hunt, D. & Wilkinson, M. (2010). Identification and characterization of visual pigments in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), an order of limbless vertebrates with rudimentary eyes, Journal of Experimental Biology, 213 (20) 3586-3592. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.045914

Kupfer, A., Müller, H., Antoniazzi, M., Jared, C., Greven, H., Nussbaum, R. & Wilkinson, M. (2006). Parental investment by skin feeding in a caecilian amphibian, Nature, 440 (7086) 926-929. DOI: 10.1038/nature04403

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