Posts

April 25, 2015

+
10:48 AM | Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction (Part 3).
In the third part of this excellent review paper  (1) we look at the empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes. Emotion Regulation When individuals are unable to … Continue reading →
+
7:27 AM | Kids with autism: a highly [psychotropic] medicated group?
"In keeping with international studies this sample of children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] was a highly medicated group."So said the results of the study reported by Kerry-Ann Louw and colleagues [1] back in 2013 who noted that approximately one quarter of their cohort were currently in receipt of "psychotropic medications". I don't want to linger too much on this topic given that such findings tally with other peer-reviewed reports including those with much larger […]

Louw KA, Bentley J, Sorsdahl K & Adnams CM (2013). Prevalence and patterns of medication use in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders in the Western Cape, South Africa., Journal of child and adolescent mental health, 25 (1) 69-79. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25860309

Citation

April 24, 2015

+
10:38 AM | Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction (Part 2).
In the second part of this excellent review paper  (1) we look at the empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative … Continue reading →
+
8:44 AM | DSM-5 impacting on autism numbers
"Consistent with previous reviews, the majority of included studies indicated between 50 and 75 % of individuals will maintain diagnoses."That was one of the conclusions reached by Isaac Smith and colleagues [1] following their systematic review of studies comparing DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and what the changes mean for eligibility for the label.Authors further reported that: "the greatest decreases [were] among high-functioning populations with IQs over […]

Smith IC, Reichow B & Volkmar FR (2015). The Effects of DSM-5 Criteria on Number of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review., Journal of autism and developmental disorders, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796195

Citation
+
7:00 AM | Measuring the mediators: initiating, maintaining and interrupting interactions. How do support workers support social inclusion?
Being engaged in our community at a level, with which we feel comfortable, could be a measure of the quality of our lives. But how do workers who support people with learning disabilities help them in ways, which can achieve this? What helps and what gets in the way? Here, in her debut blog, Paula Hopes looks at a naturalistic observation study that looked at this issue in more detail. The post Measuring the mediators: initiating, maintaining and interrupting interactions. How do support […]
+
6:30 AM | The more psychotic you are, the more benefit there is in taking antipsychotics
John Baker reviews a recent participant-level meta-analysis of six placebo-controlled studies, which looks at the initial severity of schizophrenia and the efficacy of antipsychotics including Olanzapine, Risperidone and Amisulpride. The post The more psychotic you are, the more benefit there is in taking antipsychotics appeared first on The Mental Elf.

April 23, 2015

+
10:37 AM | Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction (Part 1).
The article on the effectiveness of Mindfulness that we cite and use excerpts from today (1) was published Frontiers in Psychiatry entitled “Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface” was designated in the 93rd percentile of 3,480,147 articles … Continue reading →
+
6:30 AM | Another negative trial of cognitive bias modification: a case for Occam’s razor
Ioana Cristea reviews a recent RCT that found no effects of positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification, delivered as a web-based treatment for people with depression. The post Another negative trial of cognitive bias modification: a case for Occam’s razor appeared first on The Mental Elf.
+
5:46 AM | Does maternal asthma 'prime' for offspring neurodevelopmental disorder?
The paper from Jared Schwartzer and colleagues [1] (open-access) including a couple of familiar names on the authorship list (Charity Onore and Paul Ashwood) caught my attention recently. Based on mouse studies and the artificial induction of maternal allergy/asthma in pregnant mice, researchers reported that: "Activation of the maternal immune system with an allergy/asthma insult significantly perturbed developmental growth and species-typical behaviors in offspring." Further that […]

April 22, 2015

+
4:56 PM | World Health Organization Demands Pharmaceutical Companies Stop Withholding Clinical Trials as Study Finds Over Half of Registered Clinical Trials Are Never Published
In the United States, the FDA has the power to fine drug companies $10,000 a day for failing to publish clinical trials, yet most clinical trials still never see the light of day.Read More
+
8:39 AM | MMR vaccine was not associated with increased risk of autism
"In this large sample of privately insured children with older siblings, receipt of the MMR [measles-mumps-rubella] vaccine was not associated with increased risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder], regardless of whether older siblings had ASD. These findings indicate no harmful association between MMR vaccine receipt and ASD even among children already at higher risk for ASD."That was the conclusion reached in the study by Anjali Jain and colleagues [1] (open-access) based […]
+
7:00 AM | Safe and social – helping learning disabled people improve skills and understanding
Some people with learning learning disabilities may find it difficult to learn social rules and behaviours which can impact on the involvement and agagement in their commnunities. In her debut blog, Mandy Johnson looks at a project in Northern Ireland which set out to help people consider the desirability of a range of social behaviours and the complexities of social context. The post Safe and social – helping learning disabled people improve skills and understanding appeared first on […]
+
6:30 AM | Personality disorder: time for more attention and debate
Andrew Shepherd summarises a recent series of papers in The Lancet which look at the latest research on personality disorders. This includes evidence on classification, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and the experience of personality disorder across the life course. The post Personality disorder: time for more attention and debate appeared first on The Mental Elf.

April 21, 2015

+
8:31 AM | Jessica Biesiekierski on non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)
It's not often that I dedicate a blog post to a specific individual and their views and opinions on a particular topic. Today however, I'm doing just that to provide you with a link to the paper from Jessica Biesiekierski on the topic of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) [1] (open-access).The reason? Well, aside from being one of the primary protagonists in the research topic of gluten-related ills outside of the autoimmune condition known as coeliac (celiac) disease (itself the […]

Biesiekierski, J. & Iven, J. (2015). Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: piecing the puzzle together, United European Gastroenterology Journal, 3 (2) 160-165. DOI: 10.1177/2050640615578388

Citation
+
6:30 AM | Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent depression
André Tomlin presents the results of the PREVENT RCT published today in The Lancet, which investigates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence. The post Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent depression appeared first on The Mental Elf.

April 20, 2015

+
8:51 AM | Tics are common in adults with autism
The title of this post comes from a quote included in the paper by Ursula Kahl and colleagues [1] based on their study of the "phenomenology and characteristics" of tics in adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with a small control group of adults with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). A tic by the way, is a "sudden, fast, repeated movement or sound."This is not the first time that tics have been examined with the autism spectrum in mind. The paper from […]

Kahl, U., Schunke, O., Schöttle, D., David, N., Brandt, V., Bäumer, T., Roessner, V., Münchau, A. & Ganos, C. (2015). Tic Phenomenology and Tic Awareness in Adults With Autism, Movement Disorders Clinical Practice, DOI: 10.1002/mdc3.12154

Citation
+
7:00 AM | Can early intervention reduce challenging behaviour in children with learning disabilities?
Children with learning disabilities are more likely to have challenging behaviours and as a result are more at risk of social exclusion, deprivation, physical harm and abuse. In her debut blog, Alix Dixon considers the findings of a recent literature review of early interventions for children with challenging behaviours and their families. The post Can early intervention reduce challenging behaviour in children with learning disabilities? appeared first on The Learning Disabilities Elf.
+
6:30 AM | E-cigarettes and teenagers: cause for concern?
Marcus Munafò appraises a recent cross-sectional survey, which looks at associations between e-cigarette access and smoking and drinking behaviours in teenagers. The post E-cigarettes and teenagers: cause for concern? appeared first on The Mental Elf.

April 18, 2015

+
9:22 AM | Autistic traits in adult-onset psychiatric disorders?
"To conclude, the presentation of ALTs [autistic-like traits/symptoms] at the sub-threshold or threshold level may be closely associated with BPD [bipolar disorder] and SZ [schizophrenia]."That was the conclusion reached in the paper by Junko Matsuo and colleagues [1] (open-access here) based on their analysis of nearly 300 adults aged between 25-59 years including those diagnosed with "MDD [major depressive disorder], n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; […]

Matsuo J, Kamio Y, Takahashi H, Ota M, Teraishi T, Hori H, Nagashima A, Takei R, Higuchi T, Motohashi N & Kunugi H (2015). Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia., PloS one, 10 (4) PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25838109

Citation

April 17, 2015

+
2:33 PM | Top 8 Neuroscience and Behavior Podcasts
Get those auditory neurons firing! This blogpost is an update to my post from 3 years ago on neuroscience podcasts. I’m a complete podcast addict and really believe that podcasts are the way of the future–they’re a great way to learn on the go, while you do chores, or exercise. Also, you can control the speed of what you’re listening […]
+
7:52 AM | Higher cancer mortality rates associated with mental illness
The findings reported by Steve Kisely and colleagues [1] were of some interest recently and their assertion that despite cancer incidence being "the same as the general population for most psychiatric disorders" or even slightly reduced when a diagnosis of schizophrenia was for example received, mortality due to cancer was "increased in psychiatric patients."Such findings were based on their examination of: "Mental health records [that] were linked with cancer registrations and death […]

Kisely S, Forsyth S & Lawrence D (2015). Why do psychiatric patients have higher cancer mortality rates when cancer incidence is the same or lower?, The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25829481

Citation
+
7:00 AM | Trajectory of dementia: is it different for people with Down syndrome?
Down syndrome is the most common cause of learning disability in the UK and increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s dementia is well documented. In her debut blog, Silvana Mengoni looks at a paper which uses three case studies to consider some interesting trajectories of dementia which raise some interesting questions. The post Trajectory of dementia: is it different for people with Down syndrome? appeared first on The Learning Disabilities Elf.
+
6:30 AM | Dementia risk factors in people with mild cognitive impairment
Akshay Nair summarises a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of modifiable predictors of dementia in mild cognitive impairment. The meta-analysis finds that diabetes and the presence of any neuropsychiatric symptoms significantly predicted the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. The post Dementia risk factors in people with mild cognitive impairment appeared first on The Mental Elf.
+
5:54 AM | Lithium
I came across an impressive poem through an interpretation of the poem in the British Journal of General Practice. Lithium After the arc of ECT and the blunt concussion of pills, they gave him lithium to cling to— the psychiatrist’s stone. A metal that floats on water, must be kept in kerosene, can be drawn […] Related posts:Do It Yourself Lithium Kit, Dutch Innovation Jack Nicholson Supported Hydrogen and Solar Power in 1978 Genes Predict Reponse to Lithium Addition for […]

April 16, 2015

+
10:30 AM | A Retrained Brain? Part 2
Here we conclude our two part blog on possible brain mechanisms which may be altered via the practice of mindfulness meditation. We will be adding more on the role of  meditation in the next few blogs as it does appear to … Continue reading →
+
10:10 AM | Re-Training the Addicted Brain: A Review of Hypothesized Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention
Part 1 Here we have a comprehensive but hypothetical review of what effect mindfulness meditation may be having on the addicted brain. First we look at areas of the brain effected in addiction and in relapse before looking at how … Continue reading →
+
9:21 AM | Paternal sperm epigenetic differences and offspring autism risk
"These data suggest that epigenetic differences in paternal sperm may contribute to autism risk in offspring."So said the preliminary study results published by Jason Feinberg and colleagues [1]  (open-access) looking at "paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) cohort." Researchers analysed 44 semen samples to ascertain whether DNA methylation differences - one […]

Jason I Feinberg, Kelly M Bakulski, Andrew E Jaffe, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Shannon C Brown, Lynn R Goldman, Lisa A Croen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, M Daniele Fallin & Andrew P Feinberg (2015). Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort, International Journal of Epidemiology, Other:

Citation
+
6:30 AM | Screening for bipolar spectrum disorders (MDQ, BSDS and HCL-32)
Elena Marcus appraises a recent meta-analysis of screening for bipolar spectrum disorders, which concludes that the MDQ and HCL-32 tools are supported by more evidence than the BSDS tool. The post Screening for bipolar spectrum disorders (MDQ, BSDS and HCL-32) appeared first on The Mental Elf.

April 15, 2015

+
2:00 PM | The 'worm' with the potential to determine elections by manipulating your vote
It has become commonplace to see a "worm" based on the reactions of a tiny sample of audience members running across our screens during televised presidential debates. Psychologists tested whether the worm can influence our voting intentions and the results are worrying in the extreme.Read More
+
7:31 AM | Maternal diabetes and offspring autism risk... again
"In this large, multiethnic clinical cohort of singleton children born at 28 to 44 weeks’ gestation, exposure to maternal GDM [gestational diabetes mellitus] diagnosed by 26 weeks’ gestation was associated with risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] in offspring."That was the conclusion reached by Anny Xiang and colleagues [1] (open-access) following their analysis of some 3300 children diagnosed with ASD as part of a wider cohort of over 300,000 children […]

Xiang, A., Wang, X., Martinez, M., Walthall, J., Curry, E., Page, K., Buchanan, T., Coleman, K. & Getahun, D. (2015). Association of Maternal Diabetes With Autism in Offspring, JAMA, 313 (14) 1425. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.2707

Citation
123
77 Results